What are parabens and preservatives?

In recent years, consumers have become more aware of what products or ingredients they place on their skin regardless of marketing claims. Therefore, it is very important for brands to educate their consumers on what ingredients they put into their products before gaining trust from the consumers. Studies have shown that there has been a trend to reduce the use of parabens and preservatives in many cosmetic formulations for a variety of reasons including the safety of the ingredients themselves. Microbial contamination in cosmetic or food products may actually cause a major risk for the health of the consumer, regardless of topical or consumed products.

Preservatives are added to products to inhibit the development of microorganisms to increase the shelf-life of the products so that they can remain on the shelves for a longer time. They also have other functions such as to preserve the appearance of the food or cosmetic product, and also saving the products from spoilage from microbes. Parabens are considered chemical preservative ingredients used in cosmetic products, food products and also pharmaceuticals. They are able to prevent the growth of fungi, bacteria and yeast effectively and therefore are powerful preservatives for products which need to be shipped over long distances for longer periods of time. Parabens have been used more often because they have good antimicrobial activity, water and oil solubility, good stability over a wide pH range and also they are sold at very low prices.

Fact or Fiction?

Studies have found that parabens are actually able to penetrate the skin and even enter the bloodstream to reach parts of the body. In 2004, a group of scientists were able to find trace residues of “intact” parabens in human breast cancer tissues and suggested that these traces could have come from topical application of cosmetic products with parabens as the ingredient. Parabens are safe to use at concentrations of up to 0.4% (single paraben) or 0.8% (mixture), but when used consistently, they may accumulate and become a safety issue. Preservatives are also biologically active, and so, they may be toxic, and cause skin sensitisation.

Does The Lightening Serum contain preservatives and parabens?

No, na-dah, nyet, nein. The Lightening Serum by 28cubed does not contain preservatives as we do not want our consumers to experience skin sensitization and other health-related issues and several of our ingredients naturally have their own antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, such as maltol. With the presence of these ingredients and our packaging design, we are good to go without the need for preservatives. The cartridges are sealed once they are manufactured and filled and once open, they are directed to be used in a week. Within this time, there is minimal microbial contamination and the self-preserving properties of the ingredients are definitely sufficient to protect the serum for a good amount of time.
By delivering our product to consumers as hygienically as possible and doing our best to avoid contamination and bacterial growth within the product, you can be assured that our product is safe to use on your skin, with no unnatural side effects.

Find out more about The Lightening Serum and its 3 unique food based actives responsible for a revolutionary solution to excess pigmentation.

skin whitening actives

The science behind skin lightening and brightening

Skin brightening and whitening products are highly sought after by many who experience skin pigmentation, scarring and several other radiative exposures from the sun, which causes uneven darkening of the skin. Common skin lightening ingredients include hydroquinone, niacinamide and kojic acid.

Hydroquinone

Hydroquinone is a reversible chemical brightening agent which works by blocking crucial enzymes (i.e. tyrosinase) in the melanogenesis pathway on the skin. It is usually used as a skin bleaching agent to tackle skin discoloration related skin conditions. The inhibition of the enzyme tyrosinase results in a chemical reduction of melanin.

Hydroquinone has been successfully used for decades to treat conditions like melasma, helping to reduce skin pigmentation and even out the skin tone. However, since the effects are reversible, topical application is required to maintain the skin lightening effect. Moreover, misuse or overuse of this chemical can actually cause several side effects such as dryness, irritation, and also ochronosis (which is a bluish black discolouration caused by the accumulation of homogentisic acid, during the breakdown of tyrosine in the melanogenesis pathway). It has been banned in some European countries due to the risk of causing cancer.

Niacinamide

Niacinamide is made from niacin, which is also known as vitamin B3. Niacin can be found in most cells and are present in most metabolically active tissues, such as the brain, heart and liver. The human body is able to make small amounts of vitamin B3, and so, it must come hugely from food sources such as fish, red meat and nuts.

It is used as a skin brightener mainly because of its excellent cell renewing properties. Niacinamide is widely considered as a skin brightener as it is also a tyrosinase enzyme inhibitor which works similarly to hydroquinone to reduce melanin production on the skin. There is evidence of niacinamide being used as an anti-ageing active ingredient. It is helpful for treating excessive dryness, helps produce more collagen and also could act as a moisturising ingredient.

However, for effective skin brightening, niacinamide needs to be dosed in cosmetics at least 4% to help lighten skin pigmentation.

Kojic acid

Kojic acid is a by-product of a fermentation process during the manufacturing of sake (Japanese rice wine). Studies have shown the efficacy of kojic acid in skin lightening. It is an anti-oxidant and has melanin reduction properties. However, kojic acid is very unstable in nature and upon exposure to sunlight or oxygen, it can oxidise and lose its efficacy. Research has shown that kojic acid is not cancer-causing but can cause allergic reactions and skin irritation if used in high amounts. 

Others

Other whitening agents are vitamin C, gluthathione, and even mercury. They have their own pros and cons. However, Po3™ in The Lightening Serum has a much greater efficacy than even niacinamide at very low dosage, much lower than 4%.

Often, various skin whitening ingredients have also been found to increase the expression of tyrosinase, resulting in greater melanin synthesis, causing more pigmentation on the skin. The Po3™ actives effectively target different pathways in the skin melanogenesis process and work together with the skin’s 28-day rejuvenation cycle to reveal a brighter, even and younger looking skin. At a very low dosage, Po3™ in The Lightening Serum is able to reduce excess melanin production by 33% more than that compared to niacinamide used at 5% in a serum formulation after 28 days. This not only reduces the chances of skin irritation, and other skin conditions, it effectively lightens pigmented spots and even out the skin tone.

The Lightening Serum targets the production of excess melanin within the skin using a patented, potent combination of three food based actives. These actives work differently from the above mentioned actives as it works from the inside out and targets your dark spots via two different mechanisms of action – unlike most products that only use one. This means that there is a higher likelihood of The Lightening Serum working for your skin – not to mention, not only is it hypoallergenic and safe to use around your eyes, it is also paraben, preservative, and cruelty free. For more information on the secret behind skin brightening and whitening, read this post.