Pigmentation 101: Here’s How You Can Treat It

Have you noticed any changes in your skin texture?

More often than not, you may be asking “What are these spots?” and “Why is it happening?” every time you looked into the mirror. 

Let me share it with you. The spots that you see on your skin surface are called pigmentation. We are here to share more info about this skin condition and help you to fix it.

Let’s read more to find out.

So, what exactly is pigmentation?                                           

Pigmentation refers to a skin condition in which patches of skin become darker in color caused by the accumulation of melanin on the skin.

Pigmentation can also be caused by genetics or a variety of factors that interfere with melanin production, allowing skin color to appear unusual.

Melanin is produced by melanocytes and acts as a miniature umbrella to protect skin cells from sun and UV damage.

The pigmentation that occurs on our skin differs. There are several common types of pigmentation that can be found on the surface of our skin.

Types of Pigmentation

 #1 Age Spots

age spots

WHAT – They are known as liver spots, and they usually appear on the face after the age of 40, implying that the skin has begun to age. Age spots are normally oval in shape, vary in size, and are tan, brown, or black in color.

WHERE – Typically found on sun-exposed areas, especially the cheekbones.


  1. Overexposure to Sun – Melanin accumulates on skin areas that have been exposed to UV rays. Countries near the equator like Singapore experience yearlong UV exposure. According to dermatologists, frequent tanning salon visits can also contribute to the development of age spots.
  2. Aging – Adults over the age of 50 are more prone to developing age spots. Age spots are most common in people who spend a lot of time in the sun, especially during outdoor activities.

#2 Melasma


WHAT – A type of dark spot that is more common in people with darker skin tones and is distinguished by a butterfly-shaped mark.

Melasma is also known as chloasma. It is typically characterized by patchy brown discoloration that spreads across specific areas of the face, giving the skin a dull appearance.

WHERE– Melasma on the face is most commonly seen across the upper cheeks. Nevertheless, other areas of the face, such as the forehead, upper lip, and chin, may also be affected.


  1. Genetics – If there is a known family history of melasma, one is at a higher risk of developing it.
  2. Pregnancy – UVA and UVB rays can stimulate the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the majority of pigmentation issues. According to a study, about 50–70% of pregnant women are said to be affected by melasma, a type of pigmentation problem caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light during pregnancy.

#3 Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation

WHAT– One of the most common pigmentation problems in people with Asian skin. It is usually tan, brown, or black in color and develops from inflamed injuries. These can be difficult to cure when a deeper skin layer is involved.

WHERE– This is caused by facial injuries. These wounds can result from razor cuts, burns, or even infected zits from squeezing.


  1. Inflammation or injury to the skin.

#4 Post-Acne

post-acne treatment

WHAT – Reddish and dark in color spots on the skin and usually developed from the healing of acne wounds.

WHERE – It often appears on areas of the skin that is prone to pimple breakouts.


  1. Use of unsuitable skin products – Acne may worsen with the use of overly drying facial cleansers and alcohol-based products. Aside from that, skincare products for acne-prone skin may be too harsh for the skin. When used excessively, the skin may be drier, causing it to create even more oil.
  2. Pimples squeezing – When the extraction is not done properly, the skin and tissue beneath it may be damaged, increasing the chances of wound infection.

Types of Treatment to Remove Pigmentation

It is perfectly normal to have pigmented skin. However, there are always ways for us to fix our pigmented skin. These are the two treatments that you can try:

i) Home Remedies

You only need one of these items for home remedies, and you are ready to go!

  • Extract from green tea
  • Aloe Vera gel
  • Apple cider vinegar
  • Red Onion

If you already have one of these, all you have to do is apply one of the items to the pigmented area of your skin for 15 minutes every day. You will be able to feel and see the results after two weeks. Trust me, I am sure you will be surprised at how well these items help your skin recover.

ii) Professional Medical Treatment

There are several treatments available in Singapore to remove pigmented skin. Among the treatments are:

  • Facial treatments which normally tailored to the intensity of the pigmentation issue while taking the individual’s skin type into consideration. Depending on the pigmented skin condition, this type of treatment may cost $50 to $300 per session.
  • Laser peel treatments which reduce the pigmentation in our skin by using targeted light beams. The treatment, which normally costs $150 per session, can be completed in as little as 15 minutes, depending on the treatment area.
  • Microdermabrasion treatments which use a minimally abrasive tool to rejuvenate the skin and replenish the overall tone and texture of the skin. The cost of this treatment usually varies from $80 to $250 per session, depending on the state of the pigmented skin.
  • Chemical peels perform by exfoliating the top layer of the skin, as well as the dark spots, with glycolic acid and salicylic acid, accelerating the skin lightening process. This type of treatment can cost between $128 and $238 per session.
chemical peels treatment

It is important to note that all of the treatments listed above are always performed by a professional dermatologist. All of the treatments tend to have the same post-effect treatment such as redness in the treated skin area.

But do not worry! The redness will go away in a few days.

In short, pigmentation can be fixed by a few remedies as listed in the article, and a proper skincare regime.


Understanding hypopigmentation with 28Cubed

What is hypopigmentation?

Hypopigmentation refers to patches of skin on your body or face that lack colour or are lighter in colour from your overall skin tone. This occurs when your skin is unable to produce enough melanin and may be caused by a variety of different genetic or environmental factors. Examples of some of the most common causes and conditions are listed down below:



A rare genetic defect, albinism is caused when one’s skin is unable to produce melanin – causing their hair and skin to appear white, and their eyes to have less pigment. Because melanin serves as a means for our skin to protect us from the sun’s UV rays, albinos are more prone to sunburn and can cause burning, peeling, blisters, hard or wrinkled skin, and bumps or wounds that can develop into skin cancer and be life-threatening. Thus, it is important for them to adequately protect themselves from the sun by staying indoors and wearing sun protection.


Individuals with vitiligo have patches of skin that are lighter in colour. These patches may be found all over their body and/or face. The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown, but it is believed to be caused by an autoimmune disease that damages melanin producing cells. The lighter patches of skin are more prone to sunburn and should be protected against the sun’s UV rays.

Scars and burns, Healed blisters, Infections

The healing of infections, burns, and blisters may result in scars that are lighter in colour compared to the skin around it – resulting in hypopigmentation. These forms of discolouration may be temporary or long term, depending on the individual.

Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin experiences an allergic reaction/ irritation from contact with a substance. These reactions often come in the form of red, itchy rashes and is neither contagious nor life threatening. This reaction could lighten the skin – resulting in hypopigmentation.

How do I cure my hypopigmentation?

As stated by DermNet New Zealand, hypopigmentation will likely resolve itself as the affected skin cells begin to heal. The skin cells in the should be able to produce melanin again within the next skin rejuvenation cycles. If unsure or you think your hypopigmentation could be a sign of something more severe, visit a medical professional for a consultation.

Hypopigmentation is defined as the lack of melanin pigment within your skin, on various parts of your body. This results in various areas being lighter coloured as compared to the rest of your natural skintone. Thus, because The Lightening Serum targets the production of excess melanin, it might not be able to even out your skin tone entirely.

However, if you do suffer from age spots, liver spots, melasma, or dark scarring on other parts of your body, The Lightening Serum will be able to even these spots of dark pigmentation out.

pigmentation story header

Understanding Hyperpigmentation with 28Cubed

What is pigmentation?

Pigmentation is what gives your skin its colour and is caused by the presence of melanin. Melanin is the pigment responsible for the colour of our skin, hair, and eyes in all humans and animals- thus, darker skinned individuals have more melanin in their skin as compared to lighter skinned individuals.

Your skins’ pigmentation levels may be affected by a variety of different factors – genetics, your exposure to the sun, hormones, or even inflammation. When this occurs, your skin may become darker, referred to as hyperpigmentation, or lighter, hypopigmentation.

Understanding hyperpigmentation

An example of hyperpigmentation (cr: medicalnewstoday)

Hyperpigmentation occurs when your skin starts to produce an excess of melanin, resulting in a darker skin tone, or patches of unevenly darkened patches of skin around your face or your body. Melanin is a brown pigment, produced by melanocytes which are found in the bottom layer of the epidermis and give us the colour of our skin.
Listed below are the most common forms of hyperpigmentation:

Pigment spots/ age spots/ liver spots

Age spots are often described as flat spots on the skin which are darker in colour – usually dark brown, gray, or black. They develop on areas of your body or face which are more exposed to the sun. It is also believed that skin aging and high levels of exposure to the sun and UV rays are likely causes of age spots.

People most likely to develop such spots are those:

  • Older than 40
  • Those with fairer skin
  • People who spend extended periods of time in the sun
  • Frequent sun bed users

You may keep in mind that these darker spots are not dangerous and do not cause any health issues – however, if you believe that a particular dark spot may be an indication of something more severe, do visit a medical professional.

Melasma/ Cholasma

Also known as ‘the mask of pregnancy’, melasma usually occurs on the forehead, cheeks, and around the mouth area. These dark patches often appear on both sides of the face in a similar pattern. It is associated with hormonal changes and typically lasts until the end of the pregnancy. Women who consume birth control pills may also experience these dark spots from the changes in hormone levels. The chances of you developing melasma may be elevated if you spend extended periods of time in the sun. This is because ultimately melasma are darkened spots of pigmentated which is produced when melanin producing cells are triggered by sunlight or UV rays

People prone to melasma are:

  • Pregnant women
  • Women who consume birth control pills or any other forms of medication that might interfere with hormone levels  

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation

A temporary form of pigmentation normally occurs when a skin injury heals, or when the skin is triggered by an inflammatory disorder ( e.g. dermatitis, or infections). When this happens, this inflammation and damage to the epidermis or dermis trigger melanocytes to produce excess melanin, forming dark pigmented spots that remain on your skin long after the wound has recovered. This is also known as scarring. It is recommended to apply sunscreen to the affected area to minimise darkening within the pigmented spot.

How does The Lightening Serum help you target hyperpigmentation?

The Lightening Serum by 28Cubed helps you achieve a brighter, more even skin tone by targeting the process of excess melanin production within your skin. This way, your darker spots are corrected from within, using our unique, patented blend of active ingredients – Po3™.

Po3™ works from the inside out, based on the skin’s 28 day rejuvenation cycle, instead of bleaching the skin using acids or peels. This ensures that the surface of your skin remains undamaged and healthy.